Map of North America mountains showing elevation, prominence, popularity, and difficulty. Physical map of North America, illustrating the geographical features of North the geologically young, mountainous west, including the Rocky Mountains, the. North America has an incredibly wide variety of mountains, including Note: Range borders shown on map are an approximation and are not authoritative.
Related VideosNorth America Mountain Ranges UPSC - IAS -CAPF - SSC - State PSC
North america mountains map -
What is the highest mountain range in South America? In which country are the Southern Alps located? Lace your climbing boots tight, because this quiz will test whether you can conquer the highest peaks of knowledge. These four subdivisions differ from each other in terms of geology origin, ages, and types of rocks and physiography landforms, drainage, and soils , yet they share the physical attributes of high elevations many peaks exceeding 13, feet [4, metres] , great local relief typically 5, to 7, feet in vertical difference between the base and summit of ranges , shallow soils, considerable mineral wealth, spectacular scenery from past glaciation and volcanic activity , and common trends in climate, biogeography , culture , economy, and exploration.
These ranges formed along the eastern edge of a region of carbonate sedimentation some 17 miles 27 km thick, which had accumulated from the late Precambrian to early Mesozoic time i.
This structural depression, known as the Rocky Mountain Geosyncline , eventually extended from Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico and became a continuous seaway during the Cretaceous Period about to 66 million years ago. The ranges of the Canadian and Northern Rockies were created when thick sheets of Paleozoic limestones were thrust eastward over Mesozoic rocks during the mountain-building episode called the Laramide Orogeny 65 to 35 million years ago. Some of these thrust sheets have moved 20 to 30 miles 32 to 48 km to their present positions.
The western margin of the Canadian Rockies and Northern Rockies is marked by the Rocky Mountain Trench , a graben downfaulted, straight, flat-bottomed valley up to 3, feet metres deep and several miles wide that has been glaciated and partially filled with deposits from glacial meltwaters.
It includes the large Athabasca Glacier , which is nearly five miles long and about a mile wide. Glaciers in this ice field, while continuing to move, are thinning and retreating. The Canadian Rockies are about equally divided between drainage to the east Atlantic and Arctic oceans and west Pacific Ocean.
Athabasca Glacier, part of the Columbia Icefield, Canada. While the massive deposition of carbonates was occurring in the Canadian and Northern Rockies from the late Precambrian to the early Mesozoic, a considerably smaller quantity of clastic sediments was accumulating in the Middle Rockies.
Mountain building there resulted from compressional folding and high-angle faulting, except for the low-angle thrust-faulting in southwestern Wyoming and southeastern Idaho. The granitic core of the anticlinal mountains often has been upfaulted, and many ranges are flanked by Paleozoic sedimentary rocks e.
This same mountain-building process is occurring today in the Andes Mountains of South America. Most mountain building in the Middle Rockies occurred during the Laramide Orogeny, but the mountains of the spectacular Teton Range attained their height less than 10 million years ago by moving more than 20, vertical feet relative to the floor of Jackson Hole along an east-dipping fault.
Wind River Range, west-central Wyoming. These glaciers, however, are retreating fairly rapidly. Geologic events in the Middle Rockies strongly influenced the direction of stream courses.
A special feature of the past 10 million years was the creation of rivers that flowed from basin floors into canyons across adjacent mountains and onto the adjacent plains. This phenomenon resulted from superposition of the streams. The stream courses were initially established in the late Miocene Epoch about During the subsequent regional excavation of the basin fills—which began about five million years ago—the streams maintained their courses across the mountains and cut deep, transverse canyons.
The Yellowstone-Absaroka region of northwestern Wyoming is a distinctive subdivision of the Middle Rockies. A large magma chamber beneath the area has filled several times and caused the surface to bulge, only to then empty in a series of volcanic eruptions of basaltic and rhyolitic lava and ash. Three such cycles have occurred in the past two million years, the most recent of which occurred about , years ago. The magma chamber is currently filling again, and the land surface in Yellowstone is rising or tilting a slight amount each year.
The eastern and western ranges are separated by a series of high basins: from north to south they are North Park, the Arkansas River valley, and the San Luis Valley. Only about 5, feet of sediment accumulated during middle Mesozoic times about to million years ago in the region now occupied by the Southern Rockies.
Mountain building in these ranges resulted from compressional folding and high-angle faulting during the Laramide Orogeny, as the Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were arched upward over a massive batholith of crystalline rock. Some 10, vertical feet of the sedimentary rocks were then eroded; otherwise the Front Range would be approximately twice its present height.
The Southern Rockies experienced less of the low-angle thrust-faulting that characterizes the Canadian and Northern Rockies and the western portions of the Middle Rockies.
The ranges of the Southern Rockies are higher than those of the Middle or Northern Rockies, with many peaks exceeding elevations of 14, feet. Colorado has 53 peaks over this elevation, the highest being Mount Elbert in the Sawatch Range , which at 14, feet 4, metres is the highest point in the Rockies.
These ranges were heavily eroded by several episodes of glaciation—the most recent ended about 7, years ago, and no active glaciers remain—resulting in spectacular alpine scenery. River valleys have been deepened in the past two million years, first from the direct action of glacier ice and subsequently by glacial meltwaters. Looping, knife-edged moraines occur in most valleys, marking the downslope extent of past glaciations.
The physiographic province called the Colorado Plateau in southeastern Utah , southwestern Colorado, northern Arizona, and northwestern New Mexico is another high-elevation region of the western United States , although it lacks the history of folding, faulting, and volcanic activity of adjacent regions. The uplifts in the Colorado Plateau are not as great as those elsewhere in the Rockies, and therefore less erosion has occurred; Precambrian rocks have been exposed only in the deepest canyons, such as the Grand Canyon.
The plateau is actually a series of plateaus at different elevations arranged in a stairstep sequence through faulting. The horizontal sedimentary rocks have been dissected by the Green and Colorado rivers and their tributaries into a network of deep canyons. Some of these canyons are deeply entrenched meanders, such as the dramatic Goosenecks section of the San Juan River near Mexican Hat, Utah, where erosion through the canyon walls separating opposite sides of a meandering river loop has created a natural bridge.
The canyon is up to 6, feet 2, metres deep and exposes a remarkable sequence of sedimentary rocks. Weak rock types, such as shale and softer sandstone layers, form low-sloping benches, while more resistant rock types, such as limestone and harder sandstone layers, comprise cliff-forming units. Because of the alternating sequence of weak and resistant rocks in the canyon walls, a cliff-and-bench topography has formed that is typical of much of the Colorado Plateau region.
The headward erosion of streams into the plateau surface eventually isolates sections of the plateau into mesas, buttes, monuments, and spires. Bedrock that has been fractured into series of parallel joints can weather into high rock walls known as fins.
Subsequent weathering leads to the creation of natural arches. The same weathering processes on cliffs can create niches , which have been exploited by cliff-dwelling Native American cultures in the past. These domes are called laccoliths , and each of these mountain massifs is made up of a group of laccoliths. Load Next Page Inspire your inbox — Sign up for daily fun facts about this day in history, updates, and special offers.
Enter your email Subscribe By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Click here to view our Privacy Notice. Easy unsubscribe links are provided in every email. Thank you for subscribing! Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Stay Connected.The Columbia Mountains are classified as being in Canada's interior system, rather than its eastern system. The Yellowstone-Absaroka region of northwestern Wyoming is a distinctive subdivision of the Middle Rockies. The Canadian Rockies are about equally divided between drainage to the north america mountains map Atlantic and Arctic oceans and west Pacific Ocean. Major subranges include the British Mountains north america mountains map Richardson Mountainstowards their eastern end, and at their farthest west is the small subrange that De Long Mountains. Continental Divide: In North America the Western Continental Divide is an imaginary line that sits atop a continuous ridge of mountain summits that divide the continent into two main drainage areas. The granitic core of the anticlinal mountains often has been upfaulted, and many ranges are flanked by Paleozoic sedimentary rocks e. Major mountain ranges include